ORTHOTROPIC 

BRIDGE 

CONFERENCE


Orthotropic Bridges in the U.S.A. Built from 1960 to 2003

This is a summary of all bridges built in the U.S.A. with Orthotropic Decks. It lists basic data and statistics for bridges, and a survey of what happened to these orthotropic bridges.  The goal is to establish a useful database of listings of all orthotropic bridges.  Suggestions, improvements and corrections are appreciated!!

DISCLAIMER:  This table is based on information available to the public from libraries, or freely provided. Steel plate was used for bridge decks prior to the AISC "Battle Deck" welded system of 1938. Rivets or bolts were used to make the connections. The German engineers started the use of orthotropic in the 1950s, which has been used by most other countries. A good faith effort has been made to establish and make corrections to this table as needed. Many small bridges never had articles written about them.

Alfred R. Mangus, P.E. is the Facilitator and Chair of the ASCE Orthotropic Bridge Conference, August 2004 in Sacramento, CA - Phone & Fax:  916-961-2723 - asce@asce-sacto.org

 

State

# of Bridges

Name of Bridge

Year

Opened

Length x Width in Feet

Deck Area in Square Feet

Bridge Type

Location

Status

References

ALABAMA - None

             

ALASKA - 10

             

Cordova Ferry Terminal

Owner:  State of Alaska

1968       Cordova   1,2

Patton Yukon River

Owner:  State of Alaska

Designer:  State of Alaska

User: Alyeska Pipeline Service Company

http://www.alyeska-pipe.com This bridge is open to the public

1976 2295 x 31 68,850 Two steel box girders Across Yukon River, 6-foot thick river ice 2-lane bridge with Trans-Alaska pipeline. Temperatures to -60F. Designed to accommodate a second pipeline on other side. 3,4

City of Valdez Floating Dock Transfer Bridge 

Owner:  Ciyt of Valdez

Designer:  ABAM Engineers

Small bridge 200 x 30 6,000 Twin box Valdez    

City of Valdez Floating Dock Transfer Bridge 

Owner:  State of Alaska

Designer:  ABAM Engineers

Small bridge 200 x 30 6,000 Twin box Valdez    

Kake Ferry Terminal

Owner: State of Alaska

Small bridge 1975 166 x 16 ~2,700 Ferry transfer/ Moveable Kake    

Metlakatla Ferry Terminal

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1973 166 x 16 ~2,700 Ferry transfer/ Moveable Metlakatla    

Hoonah Ferry Terminal

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1973 166 x 16 ~2,700 Ferry transfer/ Moveable Hoonah    

Angoon Ferry Terminal

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1976 166 x 16.2 ~2,700 Ferry transfer/ Moveable Angoon    

Clark Bay Ferry Terminal

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1977 166 x 16.1 ~2,700 Ferry transfer/ Moveable Clark Bay    

Willow Crest Ped. Bridge

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1974 232 x 7.4 ~1,800 Pedestrian Tudor Road Anchorage    

Rabbit Creek Bridge

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1972 318 x 7.4 ~2,400 Pedestrian Anchorage    

Lathrop Pedestrian Bridge

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1973 238 x 8 ~1,900 Pedestrian Fairbanks Airport Way    

Egan Drive Pedestrian Bridge

Owner:  State of Alaska

Small bridge 1983 132 x 5.6 ~800 Pedestrian Juneau    

ARIZONA - None

             

ARKANSAS - 3

Based on FHWA data - no known article found nor bridge plans

            Based on FHWA data - no known article found nor bridge plans

CALIFORNIA - 17

             

The North I-680 to West I580 Owner:  State of California

1967 320 x 34 10,880 Plate girder -   4 spans Dublin Built as an experi- mental bridge. Two types of wearing surfaces  

Ulatis Creek I-80 (east bound) Owner:  State of California Designer:  State of California

1967 130 x 34 4,420 Same deck system as San Mateo-Hayward Vacaville Five wearing surfaces were tested. Epoxy AC selected. Still used by Caltrans  

San Mateo-Hayward 

Owner:  State of California

Designer:  State of California

1968 5,500 x 85.25 468,875 Two main rectangular box girders San Francisco Bay Built by Murphy Pacific "Marine Boss"  

San Diego Coronado

Owner:  State of California

Designer:  State of California

1969 1,700 x 85.25 144,925 Single cell box girder with deck overhangs San Diego Built by Murphy Pacific "Marine Boss"  

Queensway Twin Bridges

Owner:  State of California

1971 2 x 1,200  x 46 110,400     Built by Murphy Pacific "Marine Boss"  

Miller-Sweeney

Owner:  Alameda County

1974 1,275 x 61 7,777   Alameda Island & Okland Bascule moveable bridge  

Braille Trail

Owner:  Santa Rosa Water Authority

Designer:  Santa Rosa Water Authority

 

1977 60 x 6 360   Santa Rosa Pedestrian  

Sacramento River Bridge at Colusa

Owner:  Colusa County

Designer:  CH2M Hill

 

1980 105 x 38.16 4,006   Colusa    

Golden Gate Bridge

Owner:  Golden Gate Bridge

Designer:  Ammann & Whitney

New York City

1985 6,450 x 60  387,000     Redecking Construction inspection by Ammann and Whitney, Caltrans, Bridge District Engineers  

BART Weathering Steel Bridges

Owner:  BART

Designer:  Tudor Engineers

1972 4 bridges x 11 x 110 4,840 Four single track plate girder bridges Berkeley Panelized weathering steel deck system  

Maritime Off-Ramp

Owner:  State of California

Designer:  Tudor Engineers

1997 2,356 x 36.2 85,287   Oakland - Part of Contract E Cypress Curved Box - First built in North America, assembled in large pieces  

Carquinez Straits

Owner:  State of California

Designer:  Parsons and OPAC

2003 3,465 x 95 339,133     Suspension aerodynamic box  

SFOBB San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge

Owner:  State of California

2007 2 x 2,214  x 79 339,902     Self-anchoring suspension aerodynamic box  

COLORADO - 1

Based on FHWA data - no known article found nor bridge plans

Small bridge         Based on FHWA data - no known article found nor bridge plans  

CONNECTICUT - 1

             

Covered Bridge

Article in James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Book

Small bridge         Existing small timber bridge - orthotropic steel structure built to support it  

DELAWARE - None

             

DIST. OF COLUMBIA - 1

Based on FHWA data - no known article found nor bridge plans

          Washington, D.C.  

FLORIDA - None

             

GEORGIA - None

             

HAWAII - None

             

IDAHO - None

             

ILLINOIS - 4

Quantity based on FHWA data - only three found

             

Troy - experimental

Small bridge         Demolished  

McNaughton

Owner:  State of Illinois DOT

Retrofit of corroding deck: http://www.modjeski.com/

projects/offproj/mcnaught.htm

  1,320 - two lanes of traffic in each direction About 63,360 Pekin Three-span continuous dual steel box beam unit with span lengths of 385,550 and 385 feet. Orthotropic deck rehabilitated with reinforced concrete 1999 by Modjeski and Masters with Roman Wolchuk  

Poplar - see Missouri

             

INDIANA - None

             

IOWA - 2

             

KANSAS - None

             

KENTUCKY - None

             

LOUISIANA - 2

    259,874        

Mississippi River Bridge (Luling) Cable-Stayed

Owner:  State of Louisiana DOT

Designer consultants

My contact:  Kian_Yap/section25/ladotd/ us%LADOTD@dotd.state.la.us

1983 2,745 x 82 225,090 Cable stayed weathering steel across the Mississippi River Luling

About 50 mies upstream of New Orleans

Deck repair - 1994 New wearing surface 1999  

Industrial Canal (Danziger) Vertical Lift

Owner:  State of Louisiana DOT

Designer:  Sverdrup (Now Jacobs Engineering)

1989 323 x 108 34,884 3 box girders New Orleans Vertical Lift Moveable Bridge  

MAINE - None

             

MARYLAND - 1

             

Sparrows Point (Behtlehem Steel Corporation)

Owner:  Bethlehem Steel Corp.

Designer: Bethlehem Steel Corp.

Small bridge         Test Bridge 3.5 inch deep ribs. Deck failed and removed - they were too shallow.  

MASSACHUSETTS - None

             

Amesbury Chain Suspension

About 2000 243 x 30   Suspension  

Re-decking

Roman Wolchuk

 

MICHIGAN - 2

             

Creitz Road

Small bridge     Plate Girder   Prototpye Bridge  

MINNESOTA - None

             

MISSISSIPPI - None

             

MISSOURI - 1

             

Popular Street

About 1967 2 bridges x 2,165 x 56 242,480 Twin bridges - each with twin box girders St. Louis across the Mississippi Main span 600 ft.  

MONTANA - None

             

NEBRASKA - None

             

NEVADA - None

             

NEW HAMPSHIRE - None

             

NEW JERSEY - None

             

NEW MEXICO - None

             

NEW YORK - 3

             

George Washington

Owner:  Port Authority of New York/New Jersey

1978 total main spans 4,726 x 92 434,837 Suspension New York City Re-decking  

Throngs Neck Viaducts

1986 Total main spans 485,310 Plate girders   Re-decking  

Saticos Parkway over Long Island Expressway

Small bridge       Long Island Temporary construction bridge launching Wolchuk

Williamsburg

Designer:  Steinman - now Parsons

http://www.nycroads.com/

crossings/williamsburg

2002 eight lanes   Suspension New York City Re-decking 140,000 vehicles per day (AADT) June 10, 2002 at a cost of $1 billion Parsons

Triborough Bridge

Not started         Re-decking test research  

NORTH CAROLINA - None

             

NORTH DAKOTA - None

             

OHIO - None

             

OKLAHOMA - 1

             

Arkansas River

Owner:  Kansas City Southern Railway

Designer:  Roman Wolchuk Steel Supplier & Erector: Bethlehem Steel Com.

1971 2,110 x 17 35,870 Single cell box - 9 varying span lengths (no wearing surface) Crosses Arkansas River near Redland, OK

Railroad Launched

Cooper E-80 erection Engineering by Jackson Durkee

Wolchuk

OREGON - 3

             

Battle Creek Test Bridge

Owner:  City of Salem

Designer:  State Engineers, Oregon DOT

Small bridge       Salem Prototype 50% Closed Ribs & 50% Open Ribs Oregon DOT Designers

Fremont Bridge

Owner:  State of Oregon

Designer: Parsons Brinckerhof

1973 2,152 x 77 165,704

Tied- Arch

1,260-foot main span across river

Portland across the Willamette River

Upper deck only - lower deck concrete.

Built by Murphy Pacific "Marine Boss"

 

PENNSYLVANIA - 1

             

Ben Franklin

     

Suspension 

Main span 1,750 feet (original bridge built in 1927)

Philadelphia, PA & Camden New Jersey

Re-decking

Bid price $56 million

 

RHODE ISLAND - None

             

SOUTH CAROLINA - None

             

SOUTH DAKOTA - None

             

TENNESSEE - None

             

TEXAS - None

             

UTAH - None

             

VERMONT - None

             

VIRGINIA - None

             

WASHINGTON - 1

             

Third Tacoma Narrow Bridge

Owner:  Washington DOT

Designer:  Parsons

http://www.bridgepros.com/

projects/TacomaNarrows/

TacomaNarrows.htm

My contact:  "Moore, Tim" at mooret@wsdot.wa.gov

April 2007

5,400 x 67.25 Three 12' traffic lanes, two 10' shoulders, and a 10' bicycle/ pedestrian path

363,150

A new suspension bridge is being built parallel to, and 200 feet south of the existing

About $800 million of tax-exempt bond financing

2,800' main span separated by a barrier from shoulders. Orthotropic deck with stiffening truss; total deck weight of 20,000 tons under construction

 

WEST VIRGINIA - 2

http://www.wvdot.com/3_

roadways/3b4a_bridgetypes.htm

Small bridge            

WISCONSIN - None

             

WYOMING - None

             

PUERTO RICO - None

             

TOTAL 55

             
US Navy (AMMI-SYSTEM)       Research by University of Texas in Austin on "bi-serrated" ribs   Special rib system developed for floating pontoon bridges. Used in Vietnam  

Mine Subsidence Bridge 

Location unknown

Designer:  Harry S. Powell and Associates

Seattle, WA

             

REFERENCES

BOOK & HANDBOOK REFERENCES

1.      Wolchuk, R., Design Manual for Orthotropic Steel Plate Deck  Bridges, American Institute of Steel Construction , Chicago, IL., 1963.

2.      Troitsky, M. S., Orthotropic Bridges - Theory and Design, 2nd ed., The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 1987.

3.      ICE.  Steel Box Girder Bridges, Proceedings of the International Conference, the Institution of Civil Engineers, Thomas Telford Publishing, London, UK., 1972.

4.      Cartledge, P., ed., Proceedings of the International Conference on Steel Box Girder Bridges,   the Institution of Civil Engineers, Thomas Telford Publishing London, UK, 1973

5.      Hedefine, A., Chapter 11 Orthotropic-plate Girder Bridges, Structural Steel Engineering Handbook, 1st ed., Merritt, Frederick S. Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, NY., 1972

6.      Merritt, F. S.  and Geschwindner L. F. 1994 Analysis Of Special Structures", Structural Steel Engineering Handbook,  2nd ed., Merritt, Frederick S. Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1994. Chap. 4

7.      Heins, C. and Firmage, D. A., Design of Modern Steel Highway Bridges, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1979.

8.      Wolchuk, R. and Mayrbourl, R. M. Proposed Design Specification for Steel Box Girder Bridges, RN FHWA-TS 80-205, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration Washington, D.C., 1980.

9.      Milek Jr., W. A., How to Use the AISC Orthotropic Plate Design Manual, AISC Engineering Journal. AISC,  40, 1974.

10. Wolchuk, R., Steel -Plate - Deck  Bridges and Steel Box Girder Bridges, Structural Engineering Handbook,  4th Edition,  Gaylord, E. H. , Gaylord C. N.; Stallmeyer, J. E., Eds. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1997, chap 19.

11. Xanthakos, P. P., Theory and Design of Bridges, John Wiley & Son , New York, NY, 1994

12. AISC, Highway Structures Design Handbook Volume 1: (Chapter Orthotropic Plate Deck  Bridges), American Institute of Steel Construction Marketing Inc., Chicago, IL, 1992

13. Mangus, Alfred, Shawn Sun “Chapter 14 Orthotropic Deck Bridges, Bridge Engineering Handbook”, 1St ed., Chen, Wai-Fah, Duan Lian Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida, (1999).

14. AASHTO,  LFRD Bridge Design Specifications,  2nd ed., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington D.C., 1998 with updates 1999 for Orthotropic bridges

15. Chatterjee, S. , “The Design of Modern Steel Bridges”, BSP Professional Books, Oxford UK 1991 pp. 185

 

REFERENCES ON SPECIFIC BRIDGES

 

16. Campbell & Associates Engineers - Cordova Ferry Terminal, State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities – Bridge Section, Juneau, AK, 18 pp., 15. (Dec 1968)

17. Thirty-seven Authors “HMS Eighth Biennial Movable Bridge Symposium” proceedings (Nov 8-10, 2000)

18. Carlson, L. A, Platzke, R. and Dreyer, R. C. J., First Bridge Across the Yukon River, Civil Engineering, ASCE, 47, 1976. Connecticut DOT, 

19. Nottingham, Dennis Yukon River Bridge Manufacturing and  Construction, II, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding, Cleveland, OH, 1980. http://www.lincolnelectric.com/services/educate/innovate.asp

20. Ozolin, E.; Wilson, W. and Hutchison, B.,  Valdez Floating Dock Mooring System, in the  Ocean Structural Dynamic Symposium, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, Sept, 1982, 381.

21. Davis R. E., Field Testing Of An Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridge,Vol, 1 and 2, California Department of Public Works, Division of Highway, Bridge Department, Sacramento, CA, 1968.

22. Foley, E. R. and Murphy J. P., World's Longest Orthotropic Section Feature of San Mateo-Hayward Bridge, Civil Engineering, ASCE, 38, 54, 1968.

23. Balala Ben, Studies Leading to Choice of Epoxy Asphalt for pavement of Steel Orthotropic Bridge Deck of San Mateo-Hayward Bridge” Highway Research Record No. 28 page 12.

24. Bouwkamp, J. G. Analysis of the Orthotropic Steel Deck of the San Diego - Coronado Bridge, Report No. 67-20, Structural Engineering Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, CA, 1969

25. Bavirisetty, R., San Diego Coronado Bay Bridge Overlay Project (Orthotropic Deck), Structure Notes, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA, 1993     

26.      Curtis G. N., Design of the Queens Way Bridge, Modern Welded Structure, IV, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH, A-34, 1980 http://www.lincolnelectric.com/services/educate/innovate.asp

27.      ENR, Prefab Steel Bridge Girders are Biggest ever Lifted (Queens Way Bridge), Engineering News Record, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, August 27, 197019.      Winn, Bernard C., “California Drawbridges (1853-1995) The Link To California’s Maritime Past” Incline Press, pp. 178, 1995

28.      McCreary Koretsky  International Inc. “AISC Prize Bridges 1974” Moveable bridge category  (Miller-Sweeny Bridge) pp. 26

29.      Kawar,Ousama H. “Specifications For The Resurfacing Of Bridge Deck with Epoxy Urethane Co-Polymer System On Fruitvale Avenue Bridge (Bridge No. 33C-0147) Between The Cities Of Alameda And Oakland, Alameda County California”   (Miller Sweeny Bridge page) Alameda County, pp. 117,1997

30.      Brialle Trail Santa Rosa Water Authority, Modern Welded Structure, IV, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH, A-34, 1980 http://www.lincolnelectric.com/services/educate/innovate.asp

31.      Construction Marketing of Bethlehem Steel Corporation in cooperation with Universal Structural Inc. Steel Bridge Report BG-502 - Cypress Reconstruction - Contract E" (Maritime Off- Ramp ), Bethlehem Steel Corporation,  Bethlehem, PA, 1997

32.      Marquez, T., Huang, C., Beauvoir, C., Benoit, M. and Mangus, A., California's 2356 Foot Long Orthotropic Bridge for I-880 Cypress Replacement Project (Maritime Off- Ramp), in the Proceedings of  15th International Bridge Conference, Pittsburgh, VA, 1998

33.      Marquez, T., Williams, J., Huang, C., Benoit, M. and Mangus, A., Unique Steel Curved Orthotropic Bridge for I-880 Cypress Replacement Project (Maritime Off- Ramp), in the Proceedings of International Steel Bridge Symposium , the National Steel Bridge Alliance, Chicago, IL, 1998

34. Bender O., Removable Section - Sacramento River Bridge at Colusa,  Arc Welded in Manufacturing and  Construction, II, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding, Cleveland, OH, 1984

35. T. Y. Lin International- Moffat & Nichcols, San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge Structure Type Selection Report to Caltrans, San Francisco, CA, May 1998

36. DeLeuw Cather - OPAC — Steinman, Third Carquinez Strait Bridge Structure Type Selection Report - Caltrans Contract No. 59A0007, San Francisco, CA, 1997

37. Lin, T.Y.; Kulka, F.; Chow P.; Firmage A., Design of Ruck-A-Chucky Bridge, American River, California USA,48TH Annual Convention of the Structural Engineers Association of California, Sacramento, pp 133-146,  1979

38.  Connecticut DOT,  Connecticut Covered Timber Bridge Manufacturing and  Construction, II, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding, Cleveland, OH, 1984. http://www.lincolnelectric.com/services/educate/innovate.asp

39. ASCE, Bridge (discusses the Luling Bridge), Civil Engineering, ASCE, 31,  July 1984

40. ENR, Stayed -Girders Reaches Record (discusses the Luling Bridge), Engineering News Record, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, April 8, 1992

41. Garrido, Louis “Danziger Bridge a View from the Tower” Modern Steel Construction AISC , Number 1, Chicago, Illinois pp. 23-28 (1989)

42. Fisher, Thomas, A. “Chelsea Street Bridge Replacement” Paper #  IBC-98-66 of 15th Annual Internal Bridge Conference and Exhibition June 15-17 1998  [ Boston, Massachusetts]

43. Wolchuk, R., Applications of Orthotropic Decks in Bridge Rehabilitation, Engineering Journal, AISC, 24(3), 113, 1987 [Amesbury Chain Suspension Redecking]

44. [Amesbury Chain Suspension Redecking] Bridge Builder Magazine

45. JFL, Orthotropic Bridge designed as solution to concrete deterioration (Crietz Road),  Modern Welded Steel Structure, III,  James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 1970, B-10

46. Risch J. E. 1971; Final Report of Experimental Orthotropic Bridge S05 of 23081 A Crietz Road crossing over I-496 three miles west of the city limits of Lansing, Michigan DOT project 67 G-157; FHWA Project I 496-7(21), 1971

47. Connor, Robert J. , Fisher John W. ,  “Results of Field Measurements Williamsburg Bridge Replacement Orthotropic Deck -Final Report on Phase III”  ATLSS Report No. 01-01 Lehigh University (Jan 2001)

48. Kaczinski,       Mark R., Stokes Frank E., Lugger Peter Fisher John W. ,  “Williamsburg Bridge Replacement Orthotropic Deck Fatigue”  ATLSS Report No. 97-04 December 1997 Lehigh University

49. Tsakopoulos, Paul A. , Fisher John W. ,  “Williamsburg Bridge Replacement Orthotropic Deck As-built full-scale Fatigue Test Final Report on Phase II”  ATLSS Report No. 99-02 June 1999 Lehigh University

50. Wolchuk, R., Temporary Bridge with Orthotropic Deck, The Welding Innovation Quarterly, , IX(2),  19,  1992. [ New York Bridge ]

 

REFERENCES ON STUDIES OF BRIDGES WITH STEEL DECKS [PRIOR TO “ORTHOTROPIC ANALYSIS”]

 

51. Paul, E. E. “Light Steel Floor Governs Long Lift-Span Design” , Engineering News Record May 14, 1931 pp. 796 to 798 , New York, NY

52. Veeder, H. G. Jr. “Cantilever Erection of a 534 FT Lift Span” , Engineering News Record May 14, 1931 pp. 798 to 800 , New York, NY

53. unknown “Lift Span Erected by New Procedure” , Engineering News Record May 7, 1936 pp. 671 to 673 , New York, NY

54. Bowden, E. Warren “Roadways on Bridges” (Part 1), Engineering News Record March 17, 1938 pp. 395 to 399 , New York, NY

55. Bowden, E. Warren “Roadways on Bridges -II” (Part 2), Engineering News Record March 17, 1938 pp. 442 to 444 , New York, NY

56. Ashton, N. L. “Arc Welding in Design, Manufacturing and Construction” Chapter VII, “Arc Welded Steel Plate Floors Applied to Bridges and Viaducts, “ The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 1939, pp. 543-561

 

REFERENCES ON STUDIES OF BRIDGES [NEVER BUILT]

57. Roman Wolchuk Consulting Engineers Third Avenue Bridge Report

 

REFERENCES ON SEVERAL BRIDGES

58. Wolchuk, Roman, ”Old Bridges Give Clues to Steel Deck Performance” AISC Journal October 1964 pp. 137 to 140 Chicago, Illinois Wolchuk, R

59. Wolchuk, R., Orthotropic Redecking of Bridges on the North American Continent, Structural Engineering International, IABSE, 2(2), 125, 1992.

60. Gaul, Robert W. “Epoxy Asphalt Concrete A Polymer Concrete with 25 years experience” American Concrete Institute Technical Session “Polymer Concrete Overlays” Minneapolis MN conference reprint by Chemco Systems Inc. – Redwood City CA., (Nov 11, 1993)

61. Chemco Systems Inc. – Redwood City California “Epoxy Asphalt” reprint of papers including “Epoxy Asphalt Concrete A Polymer Concrete with 25 years experience” Gaul, Robert W. American Concrete Institute Technical Session “Polymer Concrete Overlays” November 11, 1993 Minneapolis MN conference.

62. Hicks, R. Gary, Dussek, Ian J., Seim Charles “Asphalt Surfaces on Steel Bridge Decks ” Transportation Research Record 1740, paper No. 00-0389, pp135-142,  Wash. D. C.( 1999)

63. Wolchuk, R., “Criteria for Surface Selection on Steel Orthotropic Decks” Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting,  Washington D. C. (Jan 7-11, 2001)

64. Wolchuk, R., “Steel Orthotropic Decks – Developments in the 1990’s” Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting,  Washington D. C. (1999)

65. Wolchuk, R., Lessons from Weld Cracks in  Orthotropic  Decks on Three European Bridges, The Welding Innovation Quarterly, II(I), 1990

 

 

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